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  • Writer's pictureShrikant Soman

Supremacy in Space - India Vs China


Let us understand the space capabilities of India and China as per veteran aerospace experts. While China has made significant strides in space technology in recent years, India is also rapidly developing its space program and has achieved several notable successes, including the recent Mars mission. We compare the two countries in terms of their space budgets, launch vehicles, satellite capabilities, and space exploration efforts.


Both countries are investing heavily in the development of space technology and infrastructure and that cooperation between the two nations could be beneficial for the advancement of space exploration in Asia. Let us have a comprehensive overview of the space capabilities of India and China and highlight their potential for future space exploration and development

Strengths of India in General

India has several strengths in various areas, including:

  1. Human resources: India has a large and highly skilled workforce, with a significant portion of the population being highly educated and proficient in fields such as technology, engineering, and medicine.

  2. Information technology: India has emerged as a leading player in the global IT industry, with a strong reputation for software development and digital services.

  3. Agriculture: India is one of the world's largest producers of agricultural products, with a diverse range of crops and farming practices.

  4. Space technology: India has made significant strides in space technology in recent years, with successful missions to the moon and Mars and the development of its own satellite launch capabilities.

  5. Democracy: India is the world's largest democracy, with a robust and independent judiciary, a free press, and a vibrant civil society.

  6. Cultural diversity: India is a highly diverse country, with a rich cultural heritage and a wide range of languages, religions, and traditions.


Overall, India's strengths in human resources, IT, agriculture, space technology, democracy, and cultural diversity provide a strong foundation for the country's continued growth and development.

Strengths of India in Space Technology

  1. Low-cost missions: India's space program is known for being cost-effective, with missions such as the Mars Orbiter Mission being accomplished at a fraction of the cost of similar missions by other countries.

  2. Launch vehicles: India has developed several reliable and versatile launch vehicles, such as the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) and the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV).

  3. Satellite capabilities: India has developed a range of advanced satellites for applications such as communication, navigation, earth observation, and scientific research.

  4. International collaborations: India has collaborated with several other countries, including France, Russia, and the United States, on various space projects.

  5. Skilled workforce: India has a large pool of highly skilled engineers, scientists, and technicians who have contributed significantly to the country's space program.


Overall, these strengths have enabled India to establish a strong presence in space technology and make significant strides in space exploration and research.

Weaknesses of India in Space Technology

  1. Limited budget: While India's space program is cost-effective, its budget is still relatively small compared to other spacefaring nations, which can limit the scope and ambition of its space projects.

  2. Dependence on foreign technology: India still relies on foreign suppliers for some critical components of its space program, such as high-power semiconductors and cryogenic engines.

  3. Limited launch capabilities: Although India has developed several reliable launch vehicles, its launch capacity is still limited compared to other countries, which can constrain its ability to undertake large-scale space missions.

  4. Limited human spaceflight experience: India has yet to send a human into space, which puts it behind other spacefaring nations in terms of human spaceflight experience.

  5. Limited space exploration: India has focused more on developing its satellite capabilities and earth observation than on space exploration missions beyond the Earth's orbit.

Overall, while India has made significant strides in space technology, these weaknesses could constrain its ability to undertake ambitious and complex space missions in the future.

Strengths of China in Space Technology

  1. Budget: China has a significant budget for its space program, which allows it to undertake large-scale and ambitious space missions.

  2. Launch vehicles: China has developed a range of advanced and powerful launch vehicles, including the Long March series, which can lift heavy payloads into space.

  3. Satellite capabilities: China has developed a range of advanced satellites for applications such as communication, navigation, and earth observation.

  4. Human spaceflight experience: China has sent several astronauts into space and has plans for a permanent space station.

  5. Space exploration: China has launched several space exploration missions, including the Chang'e lunar missions and the Tianwen-1 Mars mission.

  6. Indigenous technology: China has developed several critical components of its space program, such as cryogenic engines and high-power semiconductors, domestically, reducing its dependence on foreign suppliers.

Overall, these strengths have enabled China to establish itself as a major player in the global space industry and make significant strides in space exploration and research.


Weaknesses of China in Space Technology

  1. Lack of international collaborations: China has faced limitations on international collaborations in space due to restrictions imposed by other countries, particularly the United States.

  2. Limited transparency: China's space program has been criticized for being less transparent than those of other countries, which can limit international cooperation and hinder the sharing of scientific data and findings.

  3. Limited innovation: While China has made significant progress in space technology, some experts argue that its space program has been characterized by a lack of innovation and originality, with a focus on achieving technological parity with other spacefaring nations.

  4. Safety concerns: China's space program has faced several safety concerns, including accidents during launch and issues with space debris.

  5. Limited private sector involvement: China's space program is dominated by state-owned enterprises, with limited participation from the private sector.

Overall, while China has made significant strides in space technology, these weaknesses could limit its ability to establish long-term collaborations and partnerships and develop innovative space technologies.



Areas of Concern for India

China's rapid space militarization is a cause for concern, as noted in the articles by Times of India. China has been developing anti-satellite weapons, which could potentially cripple India's military communication and surveillance capabilities. This has prompted India to increase its own space militarization efforts, including the establishment of a dedicated Defense Space Agency.


Another area of concern for India is China's lead in the space race, as China has launched more space missions and established its own space station, while India is still working towards establishing its own space infrastructure. This has led to concerns that India may fall further behind China in terms of space technology and capabilities.


Space Exploration Budget of India and China

The exact budget figures for space exploration of India and China are not readily available, but we can provide some general information.

India's space exploration agency, the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), has a relatively small budget compared to some other space agencies. In the 2021-2022 budget, the allocation for the Department of Space, which includes ISRO, was approximately 14,788 crore rupees (about 2 billion US dollars). This budget is used for various space programs, including satellite launches, space research, and the development of space technology.


On the other hand, China has a significantly higher budget for its space program. According to a report by the US Department of Defense, China's space budget is estimated to be around 8 to 10 billion US dollars per year. This budget is used for a range of space programs, including the development of advanced space technologies, space exploration, and the establishment of a permanent space station.


It's worth noting that comparing the space exploration budgets of different countries can be challenging, as the budget figures can vary based on many factors, including exchange rates and inflation rates. Additionally, some countries may have multiple agencies or organizations involved in space exploration, which can make it difficult to calculate an exact budget figure.



Comparison of Space Technology of India and China

In terms of space technology, China is generally considered to be ahead of India, particularly in areas such as satellite and launch vehicle technology. For example, China has developed advanced technologies such as reusable rockets, which it has successfully tested, while India is still in the process of developing such capabilities.

China has also demonstrated significant progress in areas such as deep space exploration, lunar exploration, and the development of space stations. China has successfully landed a rover on the far side of the moon and has plans for future lunar missions, including the establishment of a permanent lunar base. India, on the other hand, has only sent a single lunar mission, the Chandrayaan-2, which was not entirely successful.

However, it's worth noting that India has made significant strides in developing its space technology capabilities in recent years. For example, India has successfully tested a number of advanced technologies, including the Reusable Launch Vehicle-Technology Demonstrator (RLV-TD) and the Scramjet engine. India has also successfully launched numerous satellites, including its own navigation satellite system (IRNSS), which provides navigation services to the country.

Overall, while China is currently ahead of India in terms of space technology, India has demonstrated significant potential and is making progress towards catching up with China in this area.


China’s Dictatorial Vs India’s Democratic Setup - Impact on Military

China's autocratic, centralized government structure allows it to make decisions and take actions more quickly than India's democratic system, which involves a more complex decision-making process.


This advantage in decision-making can be particularly relevant in the context of military and strategic matters, where quick and decisive action can be crucial. China's centralized decision-making structure also enables it to allocate resources more efficiently and pursue long-term strategic goals with greater consistency.


However, it is important to note that this advantage is not absolute. China's government structure can also lead to some disadvantages, such as a lack of transparency and accountability, and the potential for decisions to be influenced by a narrow group of elites.


In contrast, India's democratic system is characterized by greater transparency and accountability, as well as a broader range of voices and perspectives that can be considered in decision-making. While this can result in a more complex and slower decision-making process, it can also lead to greater legitimacy and support for decisions, as well as more robust debate and discussion.


In summary, while China's autocratic government structure can provide it with some strategic advantages, it is not necessarily a decisive factor in the comparison between India and China's space capabilities and military strength. Other factors such as investment in technology and infrastructure, diplomatic and economic relationships, and military strategy and preparedness are also important to consider.


India’s Advantage of Western and American Support in her future confrontation with China

India has received more international support, particularly from Europe and the USA, in its confrontation with China. This support is largely due to India's democratic credentials, strategic location, and its potential as a counterbalance to China's growing influence in the region.

India's democratic credentials and its adherence to the rule of law have earned it support from many Western countries that share similar values. Moreover, India's strategic location at the crossroads of Asia has made it a key partner for many countries seeking to balance against China's growing power in the region.

In recent years, India has also made significant efforts to strengthen its ties with the West, particularly the USA. The two countries have developed a strategic partnership in a range of areas, including defense, trade, and technology, and have conducted several joint military exercises.

The USA has also been increasingly vocal in its support of India's territorial claims in the disputed region of Ladakh, where India and China have been engaged in a military standoff since 2020. European countries such as France, Germany, and the UK have also expressed their support for India in the Ladakh dispute and have called for a peaceful resolution through dialogue and diplomatic channels.

In summary, India enjoys more international support from the West, particularly the USA and Europe, in its confrontation with China. This support is largely due to India's democratic credentials, strategic location, and its potential as a counterbalance to China's growing influence in the region.


Tabular comparison of the space capabilities of India and China

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Source

How India and China compare in space capabilities, veteran aerospace expert shares analysis


Space is next frontier: As China pushes ahead, India needs to bridge the gap


China’s rapid space militarisation: Comparative analysis and India’s options


Space part of a grand strategy for India, China: Report warns of its growing militarisation


Book - India China Space Capabilities: A Comparison - By SANJAY KUMAR. 314 pages


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